Gender differences in individual variation in academic grades fail to fit expected patterns for STEM

Fewer women than men pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), despite girls outperforming boys at school in the relevant subjects.

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Sep 26, 2018
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Fewer women than men pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), despite girls outperforming boys at school in the relevant subjects. According to the ‘variability hypothesis’, this over-representation of males is driven by gender differences in variance; greater male variability leads to greater numbers of men who exceed the performance threshold. 

In a peer-reviewed original research paper published this week in Nature Communications, the authors use recent meta-analytic advances to compare gender differences in academic grades from over 1.6 million students. 

In line with previous studies they find strong evidence for lower variation among girls than boys, and of higher average grades for girls. 

However, the gender differences in both mean and variance of grades are smaller in STEM than non-STEM subjects, suggesting that greater variability is insufficient to explain male over-representation in STEM. 

Simulations of these differences suggest the top 10% of a class contains equal numbers of girls and boys in STEM, but more girls in non-STEM subjects.

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Go to the profile of Martin Delahunty

Martin Delahunty

Managing Director, InspiringSTEM Network

Formerly, Global Director for the Nature Partner Journals at Springer Nature. Highly experienced scientific technical and medical publisher. Extensive experience of working with international science research organisations, universities and academic researchers working on journals, digital communities and conferences. Active speaker. Irish European.

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